Local isolates of rhizobacteria associated with rice rhizosphere were evaluated against Xanthomonas oryzae
) both in vitro
and in vivo
conditions. Twenty-three rhizobacteria were isolated from the rice-growing provinces of Caraga Region, Philippines, and their antagonistic activity were evaluated against Xoo
causing bacterial leaf blight (BLB) on rice using well diffusion assay method. Among the isolates evaluated, three (FVP 08, FVP 09, and FVP 22) were found highly antagonistic against the test pathogen with a clear and strong degree of the zone of inhibition. The three rhizobacterial antagonists were further evaluated for biological control against Xoo
under greenhouse condition. The application of these rhizobacterial antagonists on inoculated rice plants showed shorter lesion length, effectively suppressed the bacterial leaf blight and managed to reduce the severity of BLB.
Key words: Antagonistic effect, Rhizospheric bacteria, rice
This paper presents the production of quality hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders from tilapia bones using thermal treatment. Hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized by calcination of 0.5M HCl pre-treated tilapia bones. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the nano-crystalline hexagonal structure of HAp powders. Peaks associated with impurities such as hydrates and carbonates decreased and vanished along with the coalescence of particles as calcination temperature increased. XRD results also showed better crystal formation at 800 and 900oC. The synthesized HAp powder in this study conformed well to the properties of biological apatites.
Keywords: Bioceramic, Biomaterial, HAp, Nano-crystalline material
The purpose of this study is twofold: to address the proper utilization and disposal of a locally available industrial waste known as sugar mill lime sludge, and to determine whether it could improve the subgrade performance of an expansive clay by evaluating its California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS). The expansive soil known as Adtuyon clay from Stockfarm, Dalwangan was treated with lime sludge contents of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% (all by dry weight of soil); the specimens from each of these mixing conditions were cured at 0, 7, 14, and 28 days. Results show that the treated soil with 10% lime sludge and curing period of 28 days demonstrated a higher CBR and UCS. On the other hand, treated soils with lime sludge contents above and below 10% regardless of curing periods have indicated lower CBR and UCS values, thus yielding inferior engineering properties. Therefore, the expansive clay in Bukidnon can be stabilized using the locally available sugar mill lime sludge at an optimum lime sludge content of 10% cured at a minimum curing period of 28 days.
Keywords: Adtuyon, CBR, Expansive soil, Lime sludge, UCS
Irrigation water delivered to the rice fields decreases during dry season causing crop damage due to water shortage. The study aimed to estimate the irrigation water requirement of a one hundred hectare rice fields in Maramag, Bukidnon during the dry season. Parameters of water requirement were collected which include soil properties, weather data, and farming practices. Water discharge at National Irrigation Administration canal and Kibalagon creek that served the area was measured. Water saving technique using alternate wetting and drying was implemented during the dry season cropping and water used was measured using the observation well. The farm delivery requirement is 6.16 lps/ha, thrice the value used in planning irrigation operation activities. AWD saved 39% of the water used compared to conventional irrigation. The result suggests that irrigation water delivered to the area cannot sustain the water requirements, especially during dry season.
Keywords: Alternate wetting and drying, Dry season, Rice, Water requirement, Water saving
This study aimed to determine the flexural response of ferrocement I-Beam to third-point loading. Three replicates for each test specimen were made. They were cast using the fabricated C- shaped formwork reinforced with 16, 18, 20, and 22 layers of wire mesh reinforcement then installed back-to-back and connected with A-325 bolts to form I-shaped beams. The said beams were subjected to third-point load test using the Universal Testing Machine. An empirical equation for the determination of flexural strength of the form fr (x) =732.19 + 131.18 x was developed. There was a positive response to the number of layers of wire mesh to the ferrocement I-Beam. By converting the number of layers to the volume fraction of reinforcement from the results of Acma (2014) and Acma et al. (2015), a correlation of the studies was made resulting to an empirical equation. The cracking behavior at failure show perceptible, multiple cracks at each of the three replicates but the time-load curve diagram shows a proportional slope implying that the ferrocement I-beam has exhibited the ductile behavior required; the increase in the number of layers of wire mesh reinforcement also made a positive response to the flexural strength of the ferrocement I-beam.
Keywords: Ferrocement I-beam, Flexural strength, Third-point loading
Disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) has become a national and global concern due to the impacts of climate change that increase exposure to disaster risks. The Philippines anchored its DRRM actions on RA 10121 enacted in 2010. This study looks into the capacities, needs, and constraints of local DRRM Councils (DRRMC) in Bukidnon, with priority to four municipalities, one city and eleven barangays with high vulnerability to climate change impacts. The data were then evaluated in terms of compliance with Hyogo and Sendai frameworks of action. Findings of this study revealed that DRRMCs have “moderate” to “high” need for institutional capacity for DRRM; “moderate” for IEC/advocacy capacity and “moderate” to “low” for financial capacity. DRRMCs have effective and functional resources and programs for DRRM. However, barangay DRRMC has no or lacking emergency/rescue equipment and facilities and less access to basic services. Compliance with Hyogo and Sendai frameworks are constrained due to budget, technical capacity, tasks of DRRMC members and political support. The findings of this study are crucial entry points and inputs to extension programs of agencies and scientific/technical communities needed to build resilience to disaster risks.
Keywords: DRRM capacity, Hyogo Framework, Philippine DRRM Act of 2010