The study aimed to determine the effects of various weeding and spacing treatments on the growth and survival of Eucalyptus robusta
and Pterocarpus vidalianus
planted under smallholder-farmer conditions. The study was laid-out in a modified split plot design at two sites. Parameters measured for 3 years included height growth, diameter growth, survival and degree of infestation.
The results showed no significant difference in most of the parameters measured. However, the site planted with Eucalyptus robusta, stem diameter increment and degree of infestation presented significant difference. The interaction of spacing and weeding treatments for Pterocarpus vidalianus also showed significant difference for height growth.
Ring weeding in Eucalyptus robusta gave better results in diameter increment with 5.5 cm than strip brushing treatment with only 4.2 cm. Degree of termite infestation was also lesser in ring weeding with 32.9% compared to strip brushing at 39.2%.
Interaction of spacing and weeding treatments for Pterocarpus vidalianus showed 2 X 4 meters spacing and strip brushing was highest in height growth with 216.8 cm while the least was observed in 2 X 2 meters spacing and strip brushing combination with 171.8 cm.
Farmers’ evaluation showed that ring weeding was preferred over the strip brushing since the former was easier to perform because of less time consumed in carrying out the activity. In ring weeding also, less volume of weeds was extracted per activity than in strip brushing. With this, ring weeding can be carried out at longer intervals or at lesser frequency than strip brushing.
Keywords: strip brushing, ring weeding, spacing
This study was conducted to develop bamboo shoot flour supplemented wheat noodles utilizing different bamboo species. Freshly harvested bamboo shoots of different species were collected, washed and cleaned. Prepared bamboo shoots were converted into flour by slicing, boiling until the bitter taste had been removed, then dried and finely milled into flour. Samples of bamboo shoot flour were analyzed for their proximate composition. Prepared bamboo shoot flour was utilized in the formulation of recipes. The various treatments were as follows; T1 (Anos), T2 (Bayog), T3 (Kayali), T4 (Kawayan-kiling), T5 (Kawayan-tinik), T6 (Giant) and T7 (Control).
Bamboo shoot flour yield was significantly high in Kiling (T4) and Tinik (T5) with percentage yields of 5.8 and 4.9, respectively. Proximate analysis of bamboo shoot flour showed that Bayog (T2) had the highest content of crude protein and ask. Sensory evaluation of color, flavor and cohesiveness of bamboo shoot noodles did not differ among treatments. However, there was significant difference in the general acceptability among treatments based on scheffe’s S-test. General acceptability rating of Kawayan-tinik (T5) was significantly higher compared to Giant (T6) and Anos (T1).
Keywords: Bamboo shoots, different species, flour, noodles
This study aimed to determine the yield response of oil palm to Genica dry organic fertilizer application. Six treatments were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four times. The application of Genica dry organic fertilizer at 11.5 kg per tree every six months for a period of two years improved the yield of oil palm in terms of bunch weight and number of fruits per bunch. Yield obtained in Treatments 4, 5 and 6 significantly surpassed the yield of oil palm without fertilizer (T1). The combination of full recommended inorganic fertilizer and Genica dry (T6) gave the highest yield. The application of Genica dry organic and inorganic fertilizer rates and its combinations did not significantly alter the soil pH, status of Macro nutrients in the soil and the nutrient contents of the leaves of oil palm.
Keywords: Genica dry organic fertilizer, bunch weight, nutrients, oil palm
This study was conducted to compared the effects of instrumental instruction followed by a relational instruction only (R-O treatment) through quantitative and qualitative approaches. The pretest-posttest design was used in the study of twenty match pairs of third year high school students of the Central Mindanao University Laboratory High School under the National Secondary Education Curriculum. Based on their average grades in geometry from the first to the third grading period, the respondents were divided into two groups the instrumental-relational (I-R) group and the relational only (R-O) group. The I-R group had instrumental instructional for five days. The Two groups (I-R and R-O) were then combined for a three-day relational treatment. The results of the study showed that a group of students who received only relational instruction outperformed a group of students who received instrumental instruction prior to relational instruction. The Analysis of Covariance indicated that there was significant difference in mathematics anxiety levels and posttest scores of students from the two treatment groups. However, the I-R students had a notable numerical decrease in the level of mathematics anxiety. Through interviews and observations, three positive mechanisms of interference were outlined: cognitive, attitudinal and metacognitive interferences.
Keywords: interference effects, instrumental instruction, relational learning, teaching strategy
This study aimed to determine teachers’ and students’ perceptions on removal examination, teachers’ practices and problems met in the conduct of removal examination. This study employed the normative-survey method and use of interview to further validate the respondents’ survey responses. One hundred twenty two teachers and 323 students were selected as respondents through proportionate stratified random sampling and systematic sampling techniques. The research instrument used in the study was researcher-made. As such, it was validated, pilot-tested and improved based on respondents’ comments and suggestions before it was finally administered. The data gathered were summarized, translated and analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, average weighted means, ranks, medians, t-test for independent samples, and chi-square test.
Results revealed that there is a discrepancy between the teachers’ and students’ perceptions on the conduct of removal examination. Generally, teachers found the removal examination to have more disadvantages than advantages. To the students, removal examination provided them the advantage as it gave them the chance to pass a subject.
Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the perception between teachers and students on removal examination and problems met in the conduct of removal examination. Also, there is no significant difference in teachers’ practices in the conduct of removal examination when they are grouped according to personal characteristics, namely: gender, age, civil status, educational attainment and teaching experience.
As regards the general observations of teachers and students on the conduct of removal examination, majority of the teachers would recommend that the removal examination be eliminated. Although, many students would recommend that the removal examination be retained, a number of them would favor for its elimination. Considering the various advantages and disadvantages pointed out by the respondents, data would suggest the elimination of removal examination.
Based on the findings obtained and conclusions drawn from the study, there is a dire need to review the University policies on student assessment, particularly on giving of major examinations.
Keywords: removal examination, perceptions, assessment, policy