Authors: Roel D. Suralta
Loaf bread is widely consumed, and its sensory acceptability is essential for consumers’ quality assurance. Current trends in sensory techniques for cost-effective methods in food product development are the use of screening designs.This study investigated to identify the variables that affect significantly on the sensory acceptability of loaf bread processing. The design was composed of seven variables (refined sugar, fresh milk, salt, yam flour, oil, margarine, and yeast) with eight treatments using the combination of low and high levels of the variables following the Plackett-Burman 7×8 screening design pattern. Color, taste, aroma, texture and general acceptability of the loaf bread were evaluated using a 9.00point Hedonic scale through 20 semi-trained panelists. SPSS 11.5 and Statistica 6.0were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that lower levels of yam flour and margarine but with high levels of oil is preferred by most panelists pertaining to taste, aroma, texture, and general acceptability except the color of the loaf bread.Lowering the levels of yam flour and margarine but with high levels of oil improved the sensory attributes of the loaf bread. It is recommended that these levels of variables be used for loaf bread optimization designs
Keywords: Plackett-Burman, screening, sensory acceptability, loaf bread, Yam flour.
Performance of Goat Farms in Region 10
Authors: Reynaldo L. Intong, Julnar E. Pepito, Jhonny M. Callejo & Emilio M. Cruz
Goat always has a place in most of the farming systems in the country. It may play a minor role, but their importance in the rural life had long been recognized so that the condition in which they are raised must be assessed. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of backyard and commercial farms in Region 10. Provinces included were Bukidnon, Misamis Oriental, and Misamis Occidental. Site identification was based on goat population. The following were gathered from 34 backyard and five commercial farms: average doe per farm, kidding index, kidding size, kidding interval, type of birth, the sex ratio of kids, birth status of kids, average daily gain and mortality. The average number of doe per farm for the backyard is seven (7) and 34 for commercial. There are a lower kidding index and kid-size as against the national average both for backyard and commercial. Kidding intervals in the backyard are shorter than the national average, but the commercial is longer by 13.63 days than the national. Birth type for backyard is dominated by single tone followed by twins and triplets.The commercial has a similar trend on birth types. The backyard had a higher percentage of kids born alive (99%) than commercial (96.55%) Kids in the Region have better growth performance than the national average both in backyard and commercial. Mortality among kids in the backyard below one month is higher while in the commercial highest mortality was in kids 1-3 months old. Results of the evaluation of goat farm performance showed that the major problems in goat raising in the region are poor kid performance, poor dam performance, and high mortality. However, a lot of technological options which are products of previous researches are already available and can be delivered to goat raisers.
Keywords: goat, kidding index, kidding interval, kid size, growth performance
Microflora from selected ukay-ukay clothing in Valencia City, Bukidnon were isolated and identified, and the effectiveness of commonly used antimicrobial agents against the microbial isolates was assessed through a standard antimicrobial disc diffusion assay. The effectiveness of conventional hand washing and sun drying in eradicating the microbes from ukay-ukay clothing was also assessed. Nine Bacteria namely; Micrococcus luteus
, Staphylococcus sp
., Enterobacter agglomerans
, E. hafniae
, Citrobacter freundii
, Salmonella arizonae
, Serratia sp
., Edwardsiella sp
., and seven fungi namely; Aspergillus fumigatus
, A. niger
, A. nidulans, Penicillium glabrum
, Rhizopus nigricans
, Fusarium sp
., Monilia sp
. were recovered and identified.One fungal species remained unidentified. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that majority of the bacteria were susceptible to doxycycline, tetracycline, and norfloxacin. However, the majority of the isolates were resistant to penicillin.Tioconazole was the most effective among the antifungal agents tested. Majority of the fungal isolates were resistant to sulfur+ZnO+salicylic acid, clotrimazole, benzoic acid+salicylic acid, ketoconazole+clobetasol propionate and terbinafine hydrochloride. Reduction in colony counts after hand washing and sun drying reached 92.40% and 96.86% for bacteria and fungi, respectively. This study shows that ukay-ukay clothing harbor microbial pathogens with varying resistance/susceptibility to popular antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Ukay-ukay, bacteria, fungi, antimicrobial agents
Optimizing plant density per area and fertilization application are basic ways to practice scientific agriculture. These are essential for cost-effective and profitable crop production. This study was conducted at Central Mindanao University to determine the effects of varying planting densities and nutrient rates on the growth and fruit set of ‘Solo’ papaya. Planting densities (plants per ha or pph) served as Factor A. Nutrient rates in reference to a recommended rate (RR) as Factor B.The experiment was arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial in RCBD with three replications.Plants in 3,333 pph with 50% nutrient RR were the tallest amongst treatment combinations at 8 MAT and 10 MAT. Those in 2,500 pph with 100% nutrient RR had widest stems at flowering stage. Plants in 3,333 pph formed longest flowers and fruits with 150% nutrient RR. Highest fruit count per plant was recorded in 2,000pph at 8 MAT. As per hectare basis, highest planting density produced the most number of developed fruits (117,217) at 6 MAT. However, fruit count per hectare was comparable for all planting densities and nutrient rates at 8 MAT.
Keywords: Solo’ papaya, planting density, nutrient rate, fruit set, papaya, Bukidnon
Spawn production is an essential aspect in mushroom cultivation. This involves the induction of mushroom mycelial development in growing medium under controlled conditions. This study aimed to investigate the performance and economic profitability of Reishi Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum
[Fr.] Karst) cultivation in response to different spawn substrates. The study was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with six spawn grain substrates as treatments.Results revealed that the shortest time to full mycelial colonization among the different spawn grains at 50, 75 and 100% mycelial spawn run was in corn kernels.However, fruiting bags seeded with sorghum spawn grains significantly showed the earliest time (28.33 days) to full colonization and also produced the highest number of fruiting bodies. Moreover, fruiting bags seeded with sorghum grains produced the highest mushroom yield and consequently recorded the highest profit and return on investment. As per findings, sorghum grains as spawn substrate can be used for rapid mycelial growth, high-yield and low cost of reishi mushroom spawn production. When not available, corn kernels or adlay grains may be used as substitute substrates for mushroom spawn production.
Keywords: colonization, fruiting bags, grain spawn, reishi mushroom, substrates
Flooding is one of the most devastating natural disasters in the Philippines, especially in Mindanao. This study aimed to generate datasets of flooding along the Gingoog River-based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The method employed simulation and mapping of flood hazards using the Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and the HEC-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) within the GIS environment. Rainfall data on December 15, 2015, with a total amount of 20.8 mm and peak discharge of 43.49 m3s-1, were used to simulate flood hazards. The model was calibrated, and its accuracy was tested, and after which, its overall evaluation showed a satisfactory performance, implying applicability to simulate floods during extreme rainfall events. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data, flood maps of the three return periods were generated within HEC-RAS. Results showed that flooding extended up to 2.965 km2, 4.165 km2, and 5.040 km2 with maximum flood depths of 7.77 m, 8.12m, and 8.49 m for 5-year, 25-year, and 100-year return periods, respectively. The model, together with the hydrologic behavior of the watershed such as the extent of flooding, is very helpful for the development and enhancement of early warning systems in the affected areas.
Keywords: Flood hazard, GIS, HEC-HMS, Simulation
Flood modeling studies for the purpose of forecasting, early warning, and disaster management of the local government and other disaster agencies have been done in many countries nowadays. With a similar rationale, this study aims to assess the precipitation-runoff capacity of the Alubijid River Basin which can put a significant number of 41,936 populations at risk to flooding. Using the 10-meter resolution-DEM, the drainage system of the river basin was delineated in ArcMap 10.1 with the aid of HEC-GeoHMS. Data were collected last November 26-27, 2014 during the“Typhoon Queenie” which contributes to water level rise of 1.04 meter MSL of 86.7mm accumulated rainfall with a peak discharge of 18.7 m3/s. The hydrologic data and generated basin model were inputted in HEC-HMS for calibration. After series of manual adjusting the river basin’s parameters, the hydrologic modeling revealed that the river basin was accepted based on the conducted model validation and performance rating. The overall statistical measures conducted obtained very good and satisfactory ratings. As a result, the basin model is accepted for water level monitoring and forecasting as it gives lead time for the preparation of evacuation of the vulnerable community to the safe sites identified by the local government unit.
Keywords: hydrologic modeling, Alubijid river basin, basin model calibration, SAR-DEM, water level monitoring and forecasting.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) processed through the combined application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technologies were the most critical data sets to the success of surface hydrologic modelling applications. This study aims to extract the hydrologic features like drainage line, inland wetlands, and irrigations of Cabulig watershed using available Lidar datasets. Whitebox GAT and Quantum GIS were used to extract wetlands and irrigation while ArcGIS software was used for streams. The extracted features were validated using ancillary maps and google earth while features that are not clear were assigned as Point of interest (POI) and were subjected to ground validation. Aside from POI, random sampling tool was used to generate points subject to field validation. The results showed that the extracted features have higher average accuracy in comparison to the data obtained from the field regardless of a specific type of hydrologic features. The extracted streams network using ArcGIS showed the highest accuracy while the extracted wetland features using the combined applications of Whitebox GAT and Quantum GIS showed relatively lower accuracy, Therefore, this study was able to extract the hydrologic features of Cabulig watershed using LiDAR-derived DTMs with higher levels of accuracy compared to lower resolution DEMs.Keywords: Light Detection and Ranging, Water Resource Inventory, Water.
Keywords: Light Detection and Ranging, Water Resource Inventory, Water Resource Mapping
Biomass resources from forests and agriculture residues are underutilized and lost mostly in the provinces in Mindanao and other less developed areas in the country. This article focuses on the estimation of biomass available and energy potential of corn residue in Bukidnon. The study was carried out using survey questionnaires and government agriculture reports to investigate the potential biomass resources and the existing domestic and commercial uses of biomass in the province. Integration and analysis were done using ArcGIS platform and in mapping out geographic distribution and concentration of biomass resources. It is established that the annual biomass theoretical potential for Bukidnon is about 502,343.38 metric tonnes, which corresponds to an annual energy production potential of 2,252,016,879.08 MJ. The concentration of biomass theoretical potential is highest in District 2 and District 3 and consequently the energy potential of144,220,522.03 kWH and 298,793,184.33 kWh, respectively. The outcomes of the present study indicate that for studies to develop site suitability analysis for power plant development may need to consider including other leading agronomic crops in the province.
Keywords: ArcGIS, bioenergy, biomass mapping
The radiation reaching the earth’s surface can be represented in a number of different ways and one of the ways is through GHI determination. This study determined the Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) in the Province of Bukidnon. GHIis the maximum concurrency of solar radiation at specific time and location on the surface of the earth. It was determined monthly from January to December 2014 using the R.sun model that runs in an open source Grass Geographical information system (GIS) software which can compute direct (beam), diffuse and reflected solar irradiation raster maps for a given day, latitude, surface and atmospheric conditions.Inputs such as topography, location, Linke Turbidity and ground albedo, slope and aspect and sun’s declination were also taken into account in the calculation. The results suggest that the values of GHI in a clear sky condition differ by almost 90%greater than the real sky condition. The highest GHI values were recorded in the month of January and May for a clear and real sky, respectively. Thus, the output of this study recognized and may utilize further to assess the solar energy potential of the Province in terms of GHIs.
Keywords: Solar Radiation, Solar Variation, Solstice, Equinox
Forest wildfires in the Philippines are all human-caused. Resource managers are dependent on accurate estimates and spatially accurate forest structure information to govern this kind of phenomena.This study presents methods of using airborne laser scanning data to acquire forest and tree parameters that are critical in modeling forest fire behavior. The study aimed at assessing fuel models of a tree plantation through LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) point cloud data. The tree plantation under this study is located in the Municipality of Malitbog, Bukidnon that is managed by Bukidnon Forest Incorporated (BFI). Canopy fuel of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea
) was determined through calculation of canopy bulk density(CBD), canopy base height (CBH), canopy fuel weight (CFW) and canopy height(CH), which is essential in mapping the spatial distribution and modeling fire behavior. The Canopy Fuel Estimator (CFE) software, developed by researchers from USDA Forest Service, was used in this study. The plantation’s mean value of canopy fuel was extracted from available LiDAR data, which was also compared to the field data. Findings show that Caribbean pine plantation has high CBH (11.8 m), CH(31.5 m), and CBD (1.5 kg/m2). This indicates a higher risk of forest fire in the area.Furthermore, field data for canopy fuel (CBH = 17.9 m, CH = 27.9 m, CFW = 2.9kg/ha, CBD = 0.6 kg/m2) was observed to be close to LiDAR data (CBH = 11.8 m,CH = 31.5, CFW = 1.5 kg/ha, CBD = 1.5 kg/m2). Therefore, this study indicates the reliability of LiDAR data in modeling canopy fuel in a homogeneous tree plantation through CFE. The maps produced can be used in fire behavior prediction, fuel reduction treatment prioritization and during active fire elimination.
Keywords: Solar Radiation, Solar Variation, Solstice, Equinox
Flood modeling is one of the recognized effective means of assessing the flood risk to people and property. In this study, the concept of flood modeling is applied in Musimusi river at Balingasag, Misamis Oriental. Using the Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS) and River Analysis System (RAS) of the Hydrologic Engineering Center(HEC), hydrologic and hydraulic models were developed to conduct simulations on the rainfall-runoff and flood inundation processes. Data from the Typhoon Seniang event was used as main input for the calibration of basin model and consequently validated using quantitative statistics. Further simulations on specific return periods using historical data from PAG-ASA were conducted using the calibrated model. River flow hydraulics was performed through unsteady flow analysis reconstructing the Typhoon Seniang event and constructing the 5-year, 25-year and 100-year return period scenarios, spatially illustrating flood inundations on the floodplain of Musimusi. Results of this research revealed successful simulation of flood scenarios indicating the applicability of both developed HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS models. Moreover, with the integration of high-resolution Digital Elevation Model(DEM), modeling is significant towards consequent development of highly precise and detailed flood hazard maps helpful especially to local governing units for the total improvement of disaster risk-reduction strategies.
Keywords: flood modeling, flood hazard map, HEC-HMS, HEC-RAS